MyTumblr Page Moscow

landscapelifescape:

Kalapana flow, Hawaii, USA

 by Ted Gore

neurosciencestuff:

Mirror, mirror on the wall - who has the fairest ORGANS of them all? Smart surface reveals ‘your’ insides
Mirrors have existed for thousands of years but the looking glass has just been given a 21st century makeover.
A new digital mirror gives people X-ray vision to let them see their insides – complete with bones, organs and muscle on show.
The 3D art installation, called the ‘Primary Intimacy of Being,’ recreates what a body looks like inside and eerily tracks a person’s movements as if they are seeing themselves.

Read more

neurosciencestuff:

Mirror, mirror on the wall - who has the fairest ORGANS of them all? Smart surface reveals ‘your’ insides

Mirrors have existed for thousands of years but the looking glass has just been given a 21st century makeover.

A new digital mirror gives people X-ray vision to let them see their insides – complete with bones, organs and muscle on show.

The 3D art installation, called the ‘Primary Intimacy of Being,’ recreates what a body looks like inside and eerily tracks a person’s movements as if they are seeing themselves.

Read more

landscapelifescape:

Happy Earth Day!
Namburg National Park, Western Australia
 Galactic Centre by Luke Austin

landscapelifescape:

Happy Earth Day!

Namburg National Park, Western Australia

 Galactic Centre by Luke Austin

landscapelifescape:

Colorado, USA

(by Ryan C Wright)

neurosciencestuff:

Researchers find link between sleep and immune function in fruit flies
When we get sick it feels natural to try to hasten our recovery by getting some extra shuteye. Researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania found that this response has a definite purpose, in fruitflies: enhancing immune system response and recovery to infection. Their findings appear online in two related papers in the journal Sleep, in advance of print editions in May and June.
"It’s an intuitive response to want to sleep when you get sick," notes Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology research associate Julie A. Williams, PhD. "Many studies have used sleep deprivation as a means to understand how sleep contributes to recovery, if it does at all, but there is surprisingly little experimental evidence that supports the notion that more sleep helps us to recover. We used a fruitfly model to answer these questions." Along with post-doctoral fellow, Tzu-Hsing Kuo, PhD, Williams conducted two related studies to directly examine the effects of sleep on recovery from and survival after an infection.
In the first paper, they took a conventional approach by subjecting fruit flies to sleep deprivation before infecting them with either Serratia marcescens or Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. Both the sleep-deprived flies and a non-sleep-deprived control group displayed increased sleep after infection, what the experimenters call an “acute sleep response.”
Unexpectedly, the pre-infection, sleep-deprived flies had a better survival rate. “To our surprise they actually survived longer after the infection than the ones who were not sleep-deprived,” notes Williams. The Penn team found that prior sleep deprivation made the flies sleep for a longer period after infection as compared to the undisturbed controls. They slept longer and they lived longer during the infection. Inducing sleep deprivation after infection rather than before made little difference, as long as the infected flies then got adequate recovery sleep. “We deprived flies of sleep after infection with the idea that if we blocked this sleep, things would get worse in terms of survival,” Williams explains. “Instead they got better, but not until after they had experienced more sleep.”
Sleep deprivation increases activity of an NFkB transcription factor, Relish, which is also needed for fighting infection. Flies without the Relish gene do not experience an acute sleep response and very quickly succumb to infection. But, when these mutants are sleep-deprived before infection, they displayed increased sleep and survival rates after infection. The team then evaluated mutant flies that lacked two varieties of NFkB (Relish and Dif). When flies lacked both types of NFkB genes, sleep deprivation had no effect on the acute sleep response, and the effect on survival was abolished. Flies from both sleep-deprived and undisturbed groups succumbed to infection at equal rates within hours.
"Taken together, all of these data support the idea that post-infection sleep helps to improve survival," Williams says.
In the second study, the researchers manipulated sleep through a genetic approach. They used the drug RU486 to induce expression of ion channels to alter neuronal activity in the mushroom body of the fly brain, and thereby regulate sleep patterns. Compared to a control group, flies that were induced to sleep more, and for longer periods of time for up to two days before infection, showed substantially greater survival rates. The flies with more sleep also showed faster and more efficient rates of clearing the bacteria from their bodies. “Again, increased sleep somehow helps to facilitate the immune response by increasing resistance to infection and survival after infection,” notes Williams.
Because the genetic factors investigated by the Penn team, such as the NFkB pathway, are preserved in mammals, the relative simplicity of the Drosophila model provides an ideal avenue to explore basic functions like sleep. “Investigators have been working on questions about sleep and immunity for more than 40 years, but by narrowing down the questions in the fly we’re now in a good position to identify potentially novel genes and mechanisms that may be involved in this process that are difficult to see in higher animals,” explains Williams.
"These studies provide new evidence of the direct and functional effects of sleep on immune response and of the underlying mechanisms at work. The take-home message from these papers is that when you get sick, you should sleep as much as you can — we now have the data that supports this idea," she concludes.

neurosciencestuff:

Researchers find link between sleep and immune function in fruit flies

When we get sick it feels natural to try to hasten our recovery by getting some extra shuteye. Researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania found that this response has a definite purpose, in fruitflies: enhancing immune system response and recovery to infection. Their findings appear online in two related papers in the journal Sleep, in advance of print editions in May and June.

"It’s an intuitive response to want to sleep when you get sick," notes Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology research associate Julie A. Williams, PhD. "Many studies have used sleep deprivation as a means to understand how sleep contributes to recovery, if it does at all, but there is surprisingly little experimental evidence that supports the notion that more sleep helps us to recover. We used a fruitfly model to answer these questions." Along with post-doctoral fellow, Tzu-Hsing Kuo, PhD, Williams conducted two related studies to directly examine the effects of sleep on recovery from and survival after an infection.

In the first paper, they took a conventional approach by subjecting fruit flies to sleep deprivation before infecting them with either Serratia marcescens or Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. Both the sleep-deprived flies and a non-sleep-deprived control group displayed increased sleep after infection, what the experimenters call an “acute sleep response.”

Unexpectedly, the pre-infection, sleep-deprived flies had a better survival rate. “To our surprise they actually survived longer after the infection than the ones who were not sleep-deprived,” notes Williams. The Penn team found that prior sleep deprivation made the flies sleep for a longer period after infection as compared to the undisturbed controls. They slept longer and they lived longer during the infection. Inducing sleep deprivation after infection rather than before made little difference, as long as the infected flies then got adequate recovery sleep. “We deprived flies of sleep after infection with the idea that if we blocked this sleep, things would get worse in terms of survival,” Williams explains. “Instead they got better, but not until after they had experienced more sleep.”

Sleep deprivation increases activity of an NFkB transcription factor, Relish, which is also needed for fighting infection. Flies without the Relish gene do not experience an acute sleep response and very quickly succumb to infection. But, when these mutants are sleep-deprived before infection, they displayed increased sleep and survival rates after infection. The team then evaluated mutant flies that lacked two varieties of NFkB (Relish and Dif). When flies lacked both types of NFkB genes, sleep deprivation had no effect on the acute sleep response, and the effect on survival was abolished. Flies from both sleep-deprived and undisturbed groups succumbed to infection at equal rates within hours.

"Taken together, all of these data support the idea that post-infection sleep helps to improve survival," Williams says.

In the second study, the researchers manipulated sleep through a genetic approach. They used the drug RU486 to induce expression of ion channels to alter neuronal activity in the mushroom body of the fly brain, and thereby regulate sleep patterns. Compared to a control group, flies that were induced to sleep more, and for longer periods of time for up to two days before infection, showed substantially greater survival rates. The flies with more sleep also showed faster and more efficient rates of clearing the bacteria from their bodies. “Again, increased sleep somehow helps to facilitate the immune response by increasing resistance to infection and survival after infection,” notes Williams.

Because the genetic factors investigated by the Penn team, such as the NFkB pathway, are preserved in mammals, the relative simplicity of the Drosophila model provides an ideal avenue to explore basic functions like sleep. “Investigators have been working on questions about sleep and immunity for more than 40 years, but by narrowing down the questions in the fly we’re now in a good position to identify potentially novel genes and mechanisms that may be involved in this process that are difficult to see in higher animals,” explains Williams.

"These studies provide new evidence of the direct and functional effects of sleep on immune response and of the underlying mechanisms at work. The take-home message from these papers is that when you get sick, you should sleep as much as you can — we now have the data that supports this idea," she concludes.

// Urgent security update//

support:

Bad news: A major vulnerability has been disclosed for the technology that powers encryption across the majority of the internet. That includes Tumblr. Our team took immediate action to fix the issue, but you should still take some time to change your password, not only here but on any other sites you visit. 

You should also strongly consider enabling two-factor authentication. It’ll go a long way to ensure that no one besides you can access your account. Thanks, and take care.

thedupertech:

Introducing Flickr 3.0 for iOS